[Land Reforms] Post Independence: Abolition of Zamindari, Reasons, Impact, Obstacles, Limitations, First Amendment

[Land Reforms] Post Independence: Abolition of Zamindari, Reasons, Impact, Obstacles, Limitations, First Amendment

  1. Prologue
  2. What is Land reform?
  3. Land reforms: broad vs narrow sense
    1. What are the objectives of Land reforms?
    2. Increase production
    3. social justice
    4. Economic development
    5. Improve standard of living
  4. Post-Freedom: Towards land reforms
  5. Why Abolish Zamindari?
  6. First Amendment, 1951
    1. #1: SEBC
    2. #2: Freedom of Speech
    3. #3 Freedom of Profession
    4. #4: Land Reforms
    5. #4 Minor modification
  7. Timeline of Zamindari Abolition by States
  8. Zamindari Abolition Acts: Salient Features
    1. #1: Compensation
    2. #2: Common Land/resources
    3. #3: Ownership transfer
    4. #4: Personal Cultivation
    5. #5: Direct payment of land revenue
  9. Zamindari Abolition: Limitations/Obstacles/Negative points
    1. #1: Land reform Delayed= Land reform Denied
    2. #2: Personal cultivation
    3. #3: New form of Zamindari
    4. #4: Not much for Ryotwari
  10. Zamindari Abolition: Benefits/Positive points
    1. #1: Agro Production increased
    2. #2: Emancipation
    3. #3: Changed rural power structure
    4. #4: Towards an Egalitarian Society
    5. #5: Rise of middleclass
  11. Mock Questions
  12. Appendix: the 9th Schedule

Prologue

So far in the [Land Reform] series, we’ve seen:

  1. Three land tenure system of the British: Their features, implications.
  2. Peasant struggles for land reforms in British Raj: causes and consequences.
  3. Land reforms, Before independence: by Congress governments in Provinces, their benefits and limitations.

Now we look into land reform measures after the independence. But first, Let’s once again recap the meaning and importance of land reforms.

What is Land reform?

Agro productivity is affected by two type of factors:

INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS TECHNICAL FACTORS
  1. land tenure system
  2. size of land holdings
  3. land distribution
  1. climate, soil, rainfall
  2. farm mechanization
  3. farming techniques: use of hybrid seeds, fertilizer, pesticides, irrigation methods

Reforms related to ^institutional factors are called land reforms.

Let’s check some more definitions

def1 Land Reforms is a planned and institutional reorganisation of the relation between man and land
def2 Land Reforms mean deliberate change introduced into system of land tenure and the farming structure
def3 Land reforms imply such institutional changes which turn over ownership of the farms to those who actually till the soil, and which raise the size of the farm to make it operationally viable.”
def4 Land reforms mean, such measures as, abolition of intermediaries, tenancy reforms, ceiling on land holdings, consolidation and cooperative farming etc.
def5 Improving land tenure and institutions related to agriculture.
def6
  • redistribution of property rights
  • For the benefit of the landless poor.
def7
  • integrated program
  • to remove the barriers for economic and social development
  • Caused by deficiencies in the existing land tenure system.

Ya but why learn so many definition? Ans. UPSC may directly give you a definition and ask you to ‘comment’ on it-just like they do in public administration paper I. Example

Mock Questions:

  1. Land Reforms is a planned and institutional reorganisation of the relation between man and land. Comment.
  2. Land reform is not confined to just redistribution of property rights among the landless poor. Comment.
  3. Examine the change introduced into system of land tenure and the farming structure during first five year plan.
  4. Define Land reforms. Examine its role in removing the barriers for economic and social development in India.

Land reforms: broad vs narrow sense

broad sense narrow sense
concerned with land rent, land ownership, land holding, land revenue+ credit, marketing, abolition of intermediaries, etc. Concerned only with land ownership and land holdings.

What are the objectives of Land reforms?

or Why do we need land reforms?

Increase production

  • Tenant farmer has no motivation to improve agricultural practices because
    • He doesn’t own land=can’t get loans through banks / formal institutions.
    • He doesn’t own land=why bother?
    • He has to pay heavy rent to the landowner=hardly any surplus income left to invest in hybrid seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, machinery etc.
  • In other words, the agrarian structure that we inherited from the past (Zamindari, landlessness etc.) obstructs increase in agricultural production. Land reforms will remove these obstructions.
  • Land ownership/ tenure security will motivate farmers to work harder, invest more and thus produce more =more income=standard of life improved + poverty decreased.
  • For Development of Indian agriculture the importance of land reforms is greater than that of technological reforms. (according to Nobel prize-winner Gunnar Myrdal and K.N. Raj, etc.)

social justice

  1. Zamindari abolition= also eliminates Begari (forced labour)
  2. Land ceiling = reduces the inequality of income and land ownership among villagers. Provides land to landless labourers.
  3. Tenancy reforms= reduces rents. Landowner cannot evict a tenant farmer as per his whims and fancies.

1+2+3= Rural power structure changed. Upper caste domination decreased. Empowerment of SC/ST/OBC farmers, agri.labourers.

Share this post