[Land Reforms] Post Independence: Abolition of Zamindari, Reasons, Impact, Obstacles, Limitations, First AmendmentDevendra Vishwakarma
- What is Land reform?
- Land reforms: broad vs narrow sense
- What are the objectives of Land reforms?
- Increase production
- social justice
- Economic development
- Improve standard of living
- Post-Freedom: Towards land reforms
- Why Abolish Zamindari?
- First Amendment, 1951
- #1: SEBC
- #2: Freedom of Speech
- #3 Freedom of Profession
- #4: Land Reforms
- #4 Minor modification
- Timeline of Zamindari Abolition by States
- Zamindari Abolition Acts: Salient Features
- #1: Compensation
- #2: Common Land/resources
- #3: Ownership transfer
- #4: Personal Cultivation
- #5: Direct payment of land revenue
- Zamindari Abolition: Limitations/Obstacles/Negative points
- #1: Land reform Delayed= Land reform Denied
- #2: Personal cultivation
- #3: New form of Zamindari
- #4: Not much for Ryotwari
- Zamindari Abolition: Benefits/Positive points
- #1: Agro Production increased
- #2: Emancipation
- #3: Changed rural power structure
- #4: Towards an Egalitarian Society
- #5: Rise of middleclass
- Mock Questions
- Appendix: the 9th Schedule
So far in the [Land Reform] series, we’ve seen:
- Three land tenure system of the British: Their features, implications.
- Peasant struggles for land reforms in British Raj: causes and consequences.
- Land reforms, Before independence: by Congress governments in Provinces, their benefits and limitations.
Now we look into land reform measures after the independence. But first, Let’s once again recap the meaning and importance of land reforms.
What is Land reform?
Agro productivity is affected by two type of factors:
|INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS||TECHNICAL FACTORS|
Reforms related to ^institutional factors are called land reforms.
Let’s check some more definitions
|def1||Land Reforms is a planned and institutional reorganisation of the relation between man and land|
|def2||Land Reforms mean deliberate change introduced into system of land tenure and the farming structure|
|def3||Land reforms imply such institutional changes which turn over ownership of the farms to those who actually till the soil, and which raise the size of the farm to make it operationally viable.”|
|def4||Land reforms mean, such measures as, abolition of intermediaries, tenancy reforms, ceiling on land holdings, consolidation and cooperative farming etc.|
|def5||Improving land tenure and institutions related to agriculture.|
Ya but why learn so many definition? Ans. UPSC may directly give you a definition and ask you to ‘comment’ on it-just like they do in public administration paper I. Example
- Land Reforms is a planned and institutional reorganisation of the relation between man and land. Comment.
- Land reform is not confined to just redistribution of property rights among the landless poor. Comment.
- Examine the change introduced into system of land tenure and the farming structure during first five year plan.
- Define Land reforms. Examine its role in removing the barriers for economic and social development in India.
Land reforms: broad vs narrow sense
|broad sense||narrow sense|
|concerned with land rent, land ownership, land holding, land revenue+ credit, marketing, abolition of intermediaries, etc.||Concerned only with land ownership and land holdings.|
What are the objectives of Land reforms?
or Why do we need land reforms?
- Tenant farmer has no motivation to improve agricultural practices because
- He doesn’t own land=can’t get loans through banks / formal institutions.
- He doesn’t own land=why bother?
- He has to pay heavy rent to the landowner=hardly any surplus income left to invest in hybrid seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, machinery etc.
- In other words, the agrarian structure that we inherited from the past (Zamindari, landlessness etc.) obstructs increase in agricultural production. Land reforms will remove these obstructions.
- Land ownership/ tenure security will motivate farmers to work harder, invest more and thus produce more =more income=standard of life improved + poverty decreased.
- For Development of Indian agriculture the importance of land reforms is greater than that of technological reforms. (according to Nobel prize-winner Gunnar Myrdal and K.N. Raj, etc.)