[Food Processing] Fisheries: Freshwater, Aquaculture, Shrimpfarming: supply chain, upstream, downstream, Marine Policy, Fisherman Welfare SchemeDevendra Vishwakarma
- Fisheries: Scope/significance
- EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone
- Fish Supply chain
- Government Policies/Schemes
- Comprehensive Marine Fishing Policy, 2004
- National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB)
- Government Schemes
- Fishermen Welfare Scheme
- International Support
- State governments
- Mock Questions
|syllabus of UPSC Mains (GS)||topics in this article|
|(GS1) Distribution of key natural resources across the world and India||just a brief table on EEZ|
|(GS2) Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors||Comprehensive Marine Fishing Policy, 2004|
|(GS2) Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population||Fishermen Welfare Scheme|
|(GS3) Food processing and related industries in India-scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.||Related to freshwater, saltwater and shrimps.|
later: we’ll see [Food processing] Poultry, meat, tea, coffee, wine, edible oil.
|Export (2011-12 data)||
|Gives employment to more than||
Top 5 fish producers
|Top-5 Countries (2009 data)||Top-5 States (2012 data)|
Some stupid numbers from economic survey
|Export (2011-12 data)||export (approx. Million dollar)||India’s share in world trade (approx.)|
|Coast Line||more than 8100 kms|
|Continental Shelf||~half million sq.km|
|Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)||more than 2 million sq.km|
+millions of hectares of ponds, tanks, rivers, reservoirs, canals, brackish water area.
EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone
The EEZ of India can be further divided into the following regions:
|WEST COAST=42% OF EEZ||North West||Gujarat & Maharashtra|
|South West||Goa, Karnataka & Kerala|
|EAST COAST=28% OF EEZ||Lower East||Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh & Pondicherry|
|Upper East||Orissa & West Bengal|
Remaining EEZ area under Andaman and the Nicobar Islands.
|6 lakhs sq km EEZ||4 lakh sq km EEZ|
There is immense potential for import of fish into India from neighboring countries in South Asia and South East Asia.
Indian fisheries sector classification
- Deep Sea Fishing
- Coastal Fishing
- Inland (Freshwater)
Fish Supply chain Management
- Among all Desi food processing industries, Fish processing supply chain = shortest. Because in most of the cases, fishermen themselves sell their catch directly to consumers via local wet fish markets.
- Alternate channels for distribution: Fishermen=> commission agents=> Fish market.
- Arabian sea=broader continental shelf=fish production higher than Eastern coast.
- Despite government ban, fisherman use fine-sized net= even Juvenile fish are being caught.
- 30% to 40% of the catch is discarded by fishermen in high seas because juvenile fish who don’t fetch good prices in market= resource lost.
- During breeding season, fishing is banned in coastal waters. But the authorities don’t enforce it strictly.
- Lack of surveillance of territorial waters= even outsiders (Pakistani fishermen) do illegal fishing in our area.
- The EEZ around Andaman-Nicobar and Lakshadweep confluences with international waters. This makes these Island territories vulnerable to illegal Fishing by foreign vessels.
- Most fishing vessels don’t have facility to freeze the fish onboard immediately after catching= quality deterioration before they reach the coast.
- unregulated fishing of highly migratory species just outside the EEZ=negative impact on Marine biodiversity.
- Most vessel don’t have special equipment to do deep water fishing beyond depth of 400m. Example yellow fin tuna found around Lakshadweep islands. They’re almost unexploited since the technology for deep long lining is not prevalent in the Islands.
Fish Supply: Freshwater@Upstream
- For inland fisheries, two big players= WB+Andhra.
- But even those state governments not enforcing fishing net size in rivers, lakes and reservoirs= juvenile fish caught and discarded.
- Fishing ban during breeding season not strictly enforced.
- Nellor District, AP= Shrimp Capital of India.
- Pink revolution=Shrimp/prawns. (as per some books/ PDF reports.)
- Pink revolution also means meat + poultry. (as per food processing ministry, FAO etc)
- anyways, let’s check the issues.
|Fish Supply:NOTABLE Indian PLAYERS||
|LOW VALUE ADDITION||
|Fish Supply Chain INVESTMENT||
Fish Supply: @Downstream
More than 1/3rd of Indians eat fish but demand for “processed fish”=limited because
- Indian consumer prefer wet (fresh) fish rather than processed fish.
- Cost of processed fish product= 20-25% higher than fresh fish.(due to indirect taxes)
- Desi Consumers prefer to buy fresh fish from wet markets and process it at home
- Therefore, Indian fish processing segment=entirely export-oriented, due to lack of local/domestic demand
|Fish Supply: RETAILERS||
|Fish Supply: MARKETING RESEARCH||
|States||Marine fisheries within the territorial waters are the subject of maritime states|
|Centre||Fisheries beyond this limit within the EEZ fall in the jurisdiction of Central Government.|
Comprehensive Marine Fishing Policy, 2004
By Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying, Ministry of Agriculture