[Economic Survey Ch13] Human Development (Part 2 of 4): SC, ST, OBC, Minorities: welfare schemes, 12th FYP targetsDevendra Vishwakarma
- Scheduled Castes
- Scholarships: Higher Education (SC+ST)
- Protection of Civil Rights
- Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana (PMAGY)
- Manual Scavenging
- 11th FYP: SC welfare
- 12th FYP: SC welfare goals/targets
- Scheduled Tribes
- Constitutional provisions
- States without ST communities
- PESA 1996
- PESA: problems?
- Forest Rights Act 2006
- Ashram Schools
- 12th FYP: ST welfare
- Funding for ST welfare
- Other Backward Classes
- Constitutional provisions
- OBC reservation in promotion
- Creamy Layer
- 12th FYP: OBC welfare
- Minorities: Schemes
- Scholarship: minorities
- 12th FYP: Minority welfare
- Bodies: Constitutional vs Statutory
In this part, we’ll see welfare schemes related to SC, ST, OBC and minorities +12th FYP targets. A related topic Socio-Economic Caste census (SECC-2011) was already done in earlier article, click me
|Census year||% of SC in total population|
- People belonging to SC communities, by and large, are spread all over the country, with about 80 per cent of them living in the rural areas.
- Half of the SC population is concentrated in the five States of
Pre-Matric Scholarship Scheme
Babu Jagjivan Ram Chhatrawas Yojana
Scholarships: Higher Education (SC+ST)
Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship Scheme
National Overseas Scholarship Scheme
Post metric Scholarship for SC, ST
Top Class Education
Protection of Civil Rights
Two acts implemented by Ministry of social Justice and empowerment
#1: protection of Civil Rights act
#2: prevention of atrocities act (for SC and ST)
|Extends to whole India||Whole India minus J&K|
|Punishment for practice of untouchability||
Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana (PMAGY)
- launched in March 2010 as a pilot scheme for inte-grated development of 1000 SC majority villages
- The scheme is presently being implemented in five States viz. Assam (100 villages), Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu (225 villages each).
- National Scheme for Liberation and Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers (NSLRMS) has been in operation since 1992.
- Towards rehabilitating the manual scavengers and dependents
- The Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Bill, 2012’, has been introduced in the Parliament.
- Survey of Manual Scavengers in the rural areas is underway as a part of the Socio-economic Caste Census (Rural).
11th FYP: SC welfare
Earlier the 11th Five Year Plan (2007–12) adopted a three pronged strategy:
12th FYP: SC welfare goals/targets
- security and dignity of all SCs especially women
- Complete end to all forms of ‘untouchability’ and discrimination against them.
- To bring SC men and women at par with their non-SC/ST counterparts regarding education, health, nutrition, housing, income generation and employability.
- empower SCs to participate in society and in nation-building, on an equal basis with others
- Distribute surplus government land to landless SC agricultural labourers in the rural areas.
- TRIFED like organization marketing products of SC entrepreneurs/artisans.
|244/1||5th||Scheduled areas Other than AMTM|
|244/2||6th||Scheduled areas in AMTM (Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram)|
|366||Definition of STs|
States without ST communities
- UT of Delhi, Chandigarh and Pondicherry
|243M||that nothing in Part IX of the Constitution relating to Panchayat shall apply to Fifth Schedule areas= in the 9 States of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa and Rajasthan.|
|243(4)B||Parliament may, by law extend the provisions of this Part to the Scheduled Areas.|
- subsequently done in 1996 Parliament enacted ‘The Provisions of the Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 (=PESA).
- PESA has been very poorly implemented across the nine States.
- Absence of a proper administrative definition of the village that is in consonance with the Act.
- All States, without exception, have continued with their earlier revenue definitions of the village. Thereby, not only does a village at times consist of 10–12 scattered hamlets, but several revenue villages are clubbed together to form a Gram Panchayat.
- Success of PESA hinges crucially on the effective functioning of the Gram Sabha.
- Today, even in tribal areas, there is no automaticity to the functioning of the Gram Sabha and there is a large measure of exclusion of women.
- The LWE districts extend across significant parts of Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh, leading to the term, ‘The Red Corridor’.
- While the senior leadership of the party is mostly drawn from non-tribal communities, much of the rank and file comes from local villages and has built on their grievances emanating from the non-implementation of PESA
Forest Rights Act 2006
- full name Scheduled Tribes and other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006.
- The Act recognises and vests individual forest-dwellers with forest rights to live in and cultivate forest land that was occupied before 13 Dec 2005.
Rights such as
- right to live in forest
- right to self-cultivation for livelihood
- community right to use minor forest produce, grazing, fish and other products of water bodies,
- Right to in situ rehabilitation including alternative land in cases where they have been illegally evicted or displaced
- Right to protect, regenerate or conserve or manage any community forest resources (although this sounds more like a ‘duty’ than ‘right’!)
- Ashram Schools provide education with residential schooling to ST boys and girls.
- State Governments are eligible for 100 per cent Central Share for construction of Girls’ Ashram Schools and also for construction of Boys’ Ashram Schools in naxal areas.
- For the other Boys’ Ashram Schools, the funding to State Government is on 50:50 basis.
- 12th FYP wants 100% central funding for ST hostels in all areas
12th FYP: ST welfare
- clear cut personnel policy with regard to posting of officials in tribal areas: fixed tenure and incentives.
- No post in the implementing agencies in scheduled areas/areas with tribal majority should be left vacant;
- Better connectivity through railways in naxal affected area and tribal areas.
- Converge MGNREGA with artisanal work to provide livelihood to tribals, many of whom are engaged in artisanal work.
- Land and Tenancy Reform: Deal with outstanding matters of tribal ownership.
- Better and speedy implementation of PESA and FRA Institutional Mechanism of Conflict Resolutions