Classify and elaborate in detail, the various meanings of management given by different writers.Ripunjay Tiwari
Ans. Depending on context and purpose, there are several meanings of The term management’. Almost, everyone has opinions about what management Is As a result, there is no definition of management on which everyone agrees. There is no universally accepted standard definition of management. Actually,
The nature of management is such that it is virtually impossible to provide a Single unassailable formula covering all the important aspects of management. management is extensive and formulating a comprehensive definition of it poses certain problems. Furthermore, management is concerned with human beings whose behavior is highly unpredictable. Management is a young, developing discipline whose concepts are continually changing. Extreme complexity of modern industry, similarly contributes to the difficulty of management , as does the altering status of members of business organizations.
similarly, an accelerating rate of change in all aspects of business and. management complicates the ma1tagerial activity. One unfortunate result of this is that, although management as a discipline is more than seventy five year old, there is no universally accepted definition of management. Allen had
aptly remarked that the ‘manager is one of the great unknowns in the business’.
Various writers like Haimann, McFarland have tried to explain the term Management in three different ways. As a noun, it refers to individuals w ho Exercise leadership in an organization, that is, to the managers. As a process Of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling, and as a discipline, It refers to a substantive concept describing the subject, that is, a body of knowledge and practice. Management is an organized, formal discipline and taught in institutions of higher learning.
There are several definitions of management. However, most definitions Of management do share a common idea management is concerned with the.
accomplishment of objectives through the efforts of other people. These various
definitions of management can be conveniently classified into four categories
(i) Functional School – According to the functional school management is an integrating process designed to obtain organized, purposeful results
(a) Management is a distinct process comprising planning organizing, actuating and controlling to determine and accomplish the objective by the use of people and resources. • ‘
(b) ‘To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, command, to coordinate and to control.’ · ·
(c) ‘Management is the process by which managers create direct, maintain and operate purposive organizations through coordinated cooperative human effort.
(ii) Human Relations School – From the human relations school viewpoint, management is a social process. It is a social process since managerial actions are mainly concerned with relations between people Management is basically concerned with the development of people and not the direction of things. The significance of human aspect in management is
such that lawrence Appley called management as ‘personnel administration’
(a) ‘Management is the process of doing things through the agency of community’.
(b) ‘Management is an art of getting things done through and with informally organized group. ‘
(c) Management is the accomplishment of results through the efforts of other people.
(iii) Decision-making School- Management is described as a decision-making body, as a rule-making and rule enforcing body. according to Drucker, the life of manager is a perpetual choice making activity. Whatever a manager does, he does through decision-making only. Decision-making power
provides a dynamic force for managers to transform the resources of business organization into a productive, cooperative concern.
(a) Management is simply the process of decision-making and control over the action of human beings for the express purpose of achieving pre-determined goals.
(b) Management means decision making.
(iv) Systems and Contingency Schools– Systems theory states the Organizations are organic and open systems comprising interacting and interdependent plats have a variety of goals. It is the duty of managers to maintain balance among the connecting objectives, goals and activities of members of an organization. Managers must obtain results efficiently and Effectively Efficiency speaks about the relationship between inputs and outputs. Effectiveness is associated with getting things done. When managers obtain Their organization ‘s goals, the)’ are called effective managers.